Pseudocapacitance: From Fundamental Understanding to High Power Energy Storage Materials

There is an urgent global need for electrochemical energy storage that includes materials that can provide simultaneous high power and high energy density. One strategy to achieve this goal is with pseudocapacitive materials that take advantage of reversible surface or near-surface Faradaic reactions to store charge. This allows them to surpass the capacity limitations of electrical double-layer capacitors and the mass transfer limitations of batteries. The past decade has seen tremendous growth in the understanding of pseudocapacitance as well as materials that exhibit this phenomenon. The purpose of this Review is to examine the fundamental development of the concept of pseudocapacitance and how it came to prominence in electrochemical energy storage as well as to describe new classes of materials whose electrochemical energy storage behavior can be described as pseudocapacitive.