Liquid phase electron microscopy of biological specimens

Liquid phase electron microscopy is a new analytical method that has opened up a rapidly emerging field of research during the past decade. This article discusses this new microscopy modality within the context of imaging eukaryotic cells, bacteria, proteins, viruses, and biomineralization processes. The obtained resolution is typically not a function of the instrument, rather it is limited by the available electron dose within the limit of radiation damage. Therefore, different types of samples are best imaged with different electron microscopy (EM) modalities. The obtained information differs from that acquired with conventional EM as well as cryo-electron microscopy. This article gives an overview of achievements thus far in this area and the unique information that has been obtained. A discussion on potential future developments in the field, and technological advancements required to reach those goals conclude the article.