Liquid-Phase Electron Microscopy for Soft Matter Science and Biology

Abstract Innovations in liquid-phase electron microscopy (LP-EM) have made it possible to perform experiments at the optimized conditions needed to examine soft matter. The main obstacle is conducting experiments in such a way that electron beam radiation can be used to obtain answers for scientific questions without changing the structure and (bio)chemical processes in the sample due to the influence of the radiation. By overcoming these experimental difficulties at least partially, LP-EM has evolved into a new microscopy method with nanometer spatial resolution and sub-second temporal resolution for analysis of soft matter in materials science and biology. Both experimental design and applications of LP-EM for soft matter materials science and biological research are reviewed, and a perspective of possible future directions is given.