Lighting the way: recent developments and applications in molecular optogenetics

Molecular optogenetics utilizes genetically encoded, light-responsive protein switches to control the function of molecular processes. Over the last two years, there have been notable advances in the development of novel optogenetic switches, their utilization in elucidating intricate signaling pathways, and their progress toward practical applications in biotechnological processes, material sciences, and therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss these areas, offer insights into recent developments, and contemplate future directions.