In vitro generated antibodies guide thermostable ADDomer nanoparticle design for nasal vaccination and passive immunization against SARS-CoV-2

Background: Due to COVID-19, pandemic preparedness emerges as a key imperative, necessitating new approaches to accelerate development of reagents against infectious pathogens. Methods: Here, we developed an integrated approach combining synthetic, computational and structural methods with in vitro antibody selection and in vivo immunization to design, produce and validate nature-inspired nanoparticle-based reagents against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Results: Our approach resulted in two innovations: (i) a thermostable nasal vaccine called ADDoCoV, displaying multiple copies of a SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding motif derived epitope and (ii) a multivalent nanoparticle superbinder, called Gigabody, against SARS-CoV-2 including immune-evasive variants of concern (VOCs). In vitro generated neutralizing nanobodies and electron cryo-microscopy established authenticity and accessibility of epitopes displayed by ADDoCoV. Gigabody comprising multimerized nanobodies prevented SARS-CoV-2 virion attachment with picomolar EC50. Vaccinating mice resulted in antibodies cross-reacting with VOCs including Delta and Omicron. Conclusion: Our study elucidates Adenovirus-derived dodecamer (ADDomer)-based nanoparticles for use in active and passive immunization and provides a blueprint for crafting reagents to combat respiratory viral infections.