Hydroxyl content of BaTiO3nanoparticles with varied size

Different types of tetragonal BaTiO3particles were synthesized in a wet chemical process including an autoclave treatment. The synthesis and autoclaving medium was varied from isopropyl alcohol to water in different ratios, leading to a size variation of the particles from 38 to 145 nm. By applying combustion analysis of carbon and hydrogen (C/H analysis) released from the samples, it can be demonstrated that the amount of hydroxyl impurities incorporated into the crystal lattices of the particles increases with the water content of the synthesis medium. C/H analysis is a suitable tool for this characterization task as it allows discriminating different sources of these elements, i.e., different impurities. By comparing the self-synthesized particles with commercial ones, it can be concluded that the particle size has the dominant influence on the tetragonality, if the amount of internal hydroxyl groups is relatively low. In contrast, if the amount of water originating from the internal OH groups is elevated (greater than ~0.4 wt%) an impairment of the tetragonality is caused.