Genetically improved monolayer-forming tobacco mosaic viruses to generate nanostructured semiconducting bio/inorganic hybrids

The genetically determined design of structured functional bio/inorganic materials was investigated by applying a convective assembly approach. Wildtype tobacco mosaic virus (wt TMV) as well as several TMV mutants were organized on substrates over macroscopic-length scales. Depending on the virus type, the self-organization behavior showed pronounced differences in the surface arrangement under the same convective assembly conditions. Additionally, under varying assembly parameters, the virus particles generated structures encompassing morphologies emerging from single micrometer long fibers aligned parallel to the triple-contact line through disordered but dense films to smooth and uniform monolayers. Monolayers with diverse packing densities were used as templates to form TMV/ZnO hybrid materials. The semiconducting properties can be directly designed and tuned by the variation of the template architecture which are reflected in the transistor performance.