First principles of hydrazine electrooxidation at oxide-free and oxide-based palladium electrodes in complex media

In this study, fundamental aspects that have impact on the electroanalytical detection of hydrazine in phosphate, acetate and yeast fermentation medium in an analytically significant concentration range by several types of palladium (Pd)-modified electrodes, namely, Pd-ink, Pd-sputtered films and palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) were systematically studied. The efficiency of hydrazine electrooxidation is not affected by the composition of multicomponent medium (i), presence of oxygen (ii), morphology or electroactive area (iii), but more likely depends on the purity degree of the electrode surface from residual palladium oxides (iv). In addition, using advanced methods of nanoanalytics and quantum chemistry, the crucial role of hydrazine surface adsorption (v) on oxide-free and oxide-based Pd-electrodes is highlighted. The obtained knowledge will provide future development strategies of electrodes based on nanoparticles of noble metals for tuned and efficient hydrazine electrooxidation in complex fermentation media.