Back-contact perovskite solar cell fabrication via microsphere lithography

Back-contact electrodes for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) eliminate the parasitic absorption losses caused by the transparent conductive electrodes that are inherent to conventional sandwich-architecture devices. However, the fabrication methods for these unconventional architectures rely heavily on expensive photolithography, which limits scalability. Herein, we present an alternative cost-effective microfabrication technique in which the conventional photolithography process is replaced by microsphere lithography in which a close-packed polystyrene microsphere monolayer acts as the patterning mask for the honeycomb-shaped electrodes. A comprehensive comparison between photolithography and microsphere lithography fabrication techniques was conducted. Using microsphere lithography, we achieve highly efficient devices having a stabilized power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.6%, twice the reported value using photolithography. Microsphere lithography also enabled the fabrication of the largest back-contact PSC to date, having an active area of 0.75 cm2 and a stabilized PCE of 2.44%.