High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Stability Derived from Titanium-Oxide- and Sulfur-Loaded Carbon Spherogels

This study presents a novel approach to developing high-performance lithium-ion battery electrodes by loading titania-carbon hybrid spherogels with sulfur. The resulting hybrid materials combine high charge storage capacity, electrical conductivity, and core-shell morphology, enabling the development of next-generation battery electrodes. We obtained homogeneous carbon spheres caging crystalline titania particles and sulfur using a template-assisted sol-gel route and carefully treated the titania-loaded carbon spherogels with hydrogen sulfide. The carbon shells maintain their microporous hollow sphere morphology, allowing for efficient sulfur deposition while protecting the titania crystals. By adjusting the sulfur impregnation of the carbon sphere and varying the titania loading, we achieved excellent lithium storage properties by successfully cycling encapsulated sulfur in the sphere while benefiting from the lithiation of titania particles. Without adding a conductive component, the optimized material provided after 150 cycles at a specific current of 250 mA g–1 a specific capacity of 825 mAh g–1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 98%.